Features of tuberculosis respiratory tract transmission in HIV-infected patients
Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis remains a critical public health problem. The aim of the study, led by scientists from Peru, led by A. Escombe, was to study the characteristics of the airways of tuberculosis transmission in patients with HIV and pulmonary tuberculosis using d 'an animal model.
A model was created from animals (guinea pigs), which were successively exposed to the air of a mechanically ventilated room for patients infected with HIV and tuberculosis.
In 505 days, the service recorded 118 admissions from 97 HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, whose average hospital stay was 11 days.
Out of 292 animals, 159 tuberculin tests were positive and in 129 animals, the diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by laboratory tests. However, there was great variability in the positive results of tuberculin samples one month after exposure (from 0% to 53%).
The production of infectious units in HIV patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was 8.2 infectious units per hour, compared to 1.25 infectious units per hour in HIV negative patients with tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis infection control measures, which include the rapid identification and isolation of new TB patients, as well as activities to disinfect the environment, such as room ventilation or disinfection of the environment. using ultraviolet lamps are the priority areas of the public health program.
Tuberculosis control measures are essential in services for HIV-infected patients, for example in services where antiretroviral therapy is used, where very sensitive patients can come into contact with TB patients, and possibly with patients with drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis.